Thursday, January 10, 2013

Science, Art, Efficacy, Tools, and Supertools

I'm interested in the psychology of art--why people do it, what it's meant to represent, and what people hope to accomplish with it. These are broad questions that I think have deep applications, at least toward understanding the nature of creativity and innovation. I am especially interested in our early ancestors, pre-agricultural (Paleolithic) and early agricultural (Neolithic) peoples. What was their relationship to art? How did art for them bridge the ineffable gap between their own activities and the natural (or supernatural) world? How did they come to make art?

Some of these questions I explored in earlier posts like "Why Do People Make Art?" And "A Biology of Sculpture?" It's interesting to me that my ideas about these questions keep evolving. My understandings (or misconceptions) continue to evolve and refine themselves.

In "Biology of Sculpture" I began to write about the transition from stone tools to figurative sculpture. I'd like to pursue that further here.

These thoughts are influenced in part by some readings I did this summer for the NEH seminar on Mesoamerica and the Desert Southwest. There were a couple of readings that discussed corn "celts" and their symbolic significance. Shaped like giant kernels of maize, celts were a symbol of power and wealth. Where a single kernel of maize held significance of its own, for example reproductive power, sustenance, and continuation, a kernel-shaped celt might represent a whole storehouse of maize. Or several storehouses, or the supply of a whole village. A kind of magnification of meaning, an amplification of value is inherent in the celt. But it is still abstract and highly symbolic.

What about a stone or wood or clay effigy? Perhaps one that connotes fertility, strength, or abundance? My guess is that effigies like these arose from, or were perhaps formed from used tools. They represent a leap from one kind of human control over the environment to another. Imagine a stone tool and its many capabilities. Digging, cutting, puncturing, furrowing, separating, scraping. All of these activities would extend the agency, the capability, the strength of the human hand. Effigies could do much more.

The tools of our ancestors are physically, aesthetically beautiful in and of themselves. They possess grace, balance, and a profound personal character that comes from the intimate contact our ancestors had with them. Here's my hypothesis: As our ancestors developed cultural understandings of the natural world and their agency upon it--they began to develop ideas connected to a supernatural force--something that went beyond their own ability to dig, scrape, and cut. They came to some understanding of forces beyond them that controlled or allowed their ability to reproduce, to obtain food, and to continue their lineage. And they wanted some connection to that control.

Perhaps this is when they started to reshape their tools into effigies--an exercise that represented a profound change in their relationship with nature and with themselves. By sculpting "supertools," figures that connected with the supernatural, our ancestors sought to build a bridge between their efforts and the uncontrollable environment they wanted to influence. Supertools, which somehow became objects of veneration-objects imbued with power--allowed our ancestors to somehow possess some of that power themselves.

As our ancestors continued to refine their art they sought greater control over it and over their world. Eventually this translated into their design of space and the built environment, large-scale coordinated artistic activities that accommodated and in a sense, embodied ritual.

The photos below project a kind of time-line of change from tool to effigy. And ultimately, to writing.










36 comments:

  1. Subjective
    -that stone, wood or clay connotes fertility strength or abundance
    -that tools are aesthetically beautiful
    -a single kernal of maize represents reproductive power, sustenance and continuation
    -celts were a symbol of power and wealth
    -supertools connected with the super natural
    -tools of ancestors possess grace, balance and a personal character that comes from intimate contact our ancestors have with them
    -they came to an understanding of forces beyond them that controlled or allowed their ability to reproduce, to obtain food, and to continue their lineage
    -supertools were allowed our ancestors to possess power
    -a kind of magnification of meaning, an amplification of value is inherent in the celt
    -the celt is also absract and highly symbolic

    Objective
    -that tools were used by our ancestors
    -stone tools have many capabilities
    -the activities described using the stone tools would strengthen the human hand
    -that Paleolithic people were pre-agricultural
    -that Neolithic are the early agricultural people
    -people make art for different reasons
    -ancestors continued to refine their art
    -tools were reshaped into effigies
    -they believed in forces beyond that
    -that celts shaped like giant kernals of maize

    -Dana Friedman, Carley Mirvis, Dani Segelbaum, Sasha Engelman, Allie Kulak, Jake Weissberg

    ReplyDelete
  2. OBJECTIVE
    Photographs
    use of tools
    shape of tools
    materials used to make the tools
    capabilities of the tools
    food
    the strength of humans
    how they make the tools
    environment
    agriculture

    SUBJECTIVE
    symbolic significance
    use of tools
    aesthetics
    reasons why people make art
    effigy
    change in the relationship b/w nature and people
    rituals
    supernatural forces
    the strength of humans
    art

    Sammy Nassif
    Alana Rockoff
    Allie Armstrong
    Meg Shepro

    ReplyDelete
  3. Jess Morin, Michael Kagan, Maddy Fisher, Shayna Leeds, Dominick Troendle


    SUBJECTIVE
    "Where a single kernel of maize held significance of its own….and highly symbolic"
    "…Effigies like these arose from….from one environment to another"
    "Effigies could do much more"
    "The tools of our ancestors are physically…in and of themselves"
    "As our ancestors developed cultural understandings of the natural world and their agency upon it--they began to develop ideas connected to a supernatural force--something that went beyond their own ability to dig, scrape, and cut."
    "Perhaps this is when they started to reshape their tools into effigies"
    "They possess grace, balance, and a profound personal character that comes from the intimate contact our ancestors had with them"
    "And they wanted some connection to that control. "
    "These are broad questions that I think have deep applications, at least toward understanding the nature of creativity and innovation."
    "they began to develop ideas connected to a supernatural force--something that went beyond their own ability to dig, scrape, and cut. "




    OBJECTIVE
    "shaped like giant kernels of maize..."
    "Celts were a symbol of power and wealth"
    "Digging, cutting…scraping…all of these activities would extend….of the human hand"
    "The photos below project a kind of time-line of change from tool to effigy. And ultimately, to writing. "
    As our ancestors continued to refine their art they sought greater control over it and over their world. Eventually this translated into their design of space and the built environment, large-scale coordinated artistic activities that accommodated and in a sense, embodied ritual.
    "They came to some understanding of forces beyond them that controlled or allowed their ability to reproduce, to obtain food, and to continue their lineage"
    "These thoughts are influenced in part by some readings I did this summer for the NEH seminar on Mesoamerica and the Desert Southwest."
    "here were a couple of readings that discussed corn "celts" and their symbolic significance."
    "As our ancestors developed cultural understandings of the natural world and their agency upon it…."
    "In "Biology of Sculpture" I began to write about the transition from stone tools to figurative sculpture."

    ReplyDelete
  4. Objective
    1.Paleolithic are pre-agricultural peoples
    2. Neolithic are early agricultural peoples
    3. Celts were shaped like giant kernels of maize
    4. Effigies are stone, wood, or clay
    5. Mesoamericans reshaped tools into effigies
    6. Environment larger scale artistic activities
    7. More coordinated environment
    8. Tools were created in Mesoamerica and the desert southwest
    9. Tools were used to created sculptures
    10. Effigies were used for writing

    Subjective
    1. Symbolism of celts- symbol of power and wealth
    2. Celts might represent a whole storehouse of maize
    3. Significance of celts, for example, reproductive power, sustenance, and continuation
    4. Celts are abstract and highly symbolic
    5. Effigies connote fertility, strength, or abundance
    6. Effigies arose from used tools
    7. Effigies represent a leap from one kind of human control over the environment to another
    8. Effigy capabilities-digging, cutting, puncturing etc.
    9. Activities strengthening human hand.
    10. Tool are beautiful

    Jacob Browning, Mandy Maisel, Morgan Bruzzese, Oreoluwa Taiwo

    ReplyDelete
  5. Subjective:
    -Interests in early ancestors
    -Interested in psychology of art
    -Opinion on tools of ancestors
    -Guess on how effigies arose
    -Hypothesis
    -Questions of biology continue to evolve
    -Ideas about questions are still evolving
    -Wood/clay tools represent leap in human control over one environment to another
    -Ancestors developed ideas connected to a supernatural force
    -Role art played in subjective lives

    Objective:
    -Transition from stone tools to figurative sculpture
    -Symbol of celts
    -Stone tool capabilities
    -Super tools gave ancestors power
    -Celts are kernel shaped
    -Our ancestors were able to produce, obtain food and continue lineage
    -Ancestors wanted connection to control
    -Ancestors sought greater control over the world as they refined their art
    -Reshaping tools represented change in nature and themselves
    -Effigies are stronger than human hand

    Halle Gecawich, Talia Glickman-Simon, Shayna LaSala, Morgan O'Neill

    ReplyDelete
  6. Chris Orellana & George Penniman

    Subjective
    • “Celts” are shaped like giant Kernals of maize.
    • Stone, wood, and clay effigy’s connote fertility, strength, or abundance.
    • Psychology of art has “deep allocations”.
    • Effigies arose from used tools; “represent leap from one kind of human control over the environment to another”.
    • “Tools of our ancestors are physically, aesthetically, beautiful in and of themselves”.
    • Ancestors created arts because of need to understand supernatural forces.
    • “Celts” were an example of humans using symbolism.
    • Effigies possess grace, balance, and a profound personal character.
    • Effigies represented a profound change in their relationship with nature and with themselves.
    • Effigies were abstract and highly symbolic.
    Objective
    • Celts were a symbol of power and wealth.
    • Effigies were formed from used tools.
    • Stone tools “extend the agency, the capability, the capability, the strength of the human hand.”
    • Effigies represent change in humans.
    • Super tools became objects of veneration-objects imbued with power and allowed our ancestors to somehow possess some of that power themselves.
    • Simple things like tools and art eventually translated into things like architecture.
    • Effigies translated into writing.
    • As our ancestors continued to refine their art they sought greater control over it and over their world.
    • Effigies could do much more than regular tools.
    • They came to some understanding of forces beyond them that controlled or allowed their ability to reproduce, to obtain food, and to continue their lineage. And they wanted some connection to that control.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Kate Schade
    Molly Gagnon
    Tali Sandel
    Haley Carter

    Objective
    - tools used for food, hunting in daily life
    - different colors represent different origins
    - tools get more advanced as time goes on
    - symbolic of the environment they live in
    - symbolic of the natural resources they have access to
    - help them to evolve and survive
    - effigies are more than just regular tools, they are symbolic of something
    - the trend of the shape of the tools change over time
    - change in shape represents change in agriculture techniques of the time
    - harsh tools might be used for hunting and agricultural tools are smoother

    Subjective
    - the more detailed pieces show more craftsmanship and emotions
    - statue is advanced
    - connected with spirituality, culture, religion
    - harshness of first piece, possible weapon
    - put emotions into the art, expression of their feelings
    - decorative items portray style of the time
    - these effigies symbolize important themes to the people
    - also used for everyday life use, worn with time
    - symbolic of the past
    - colors represent emotions, feelings, issues

    ReplyDelete
  8. Objective:
    Rock tools became objects of veneration
    Effigies were made from former tools
    Ancestors Understood things like reproduction
    Changing tools to effigies represented a new understanding of nature
    Tools improved upon the capabilities of the human hand
    The Writing is about why people make art
    Biology of Sculpture talks about the transition from tools to sculpture
    Celts were shaoed like maize
    Tools were created in Mesoamerica
    These thoughts wre developed while you were at an NEH seminar
    Subjective:
    The Tools of our ancestors are beautiful
    Tools contain personal character
    Humans wanted a connection to higher beings
    Effigies were symbolic
    Celts represented power
    Our Ancestors looked for greater control over the surrounding world
    Amplification of the value of celts
    Our Ancestor's tools have grace
    The Tools have balance
    Effigies represent change in how humans try to manipulate the environment

    Andrew Zaky
    Jake Paul

    ReplyDelete
  9. Isabel Vera
    Camila Machado
    Isabelle Earls

    Subjective:

    1. Celts were a symbol of power and wealth, significant to reproductive power, sustenance, and continuation
    2. Wood or clay figures may stand for fertility, strength, or abundance
    3. Tools of ancestors are physically and aesthetically beautiful in and of themselves
    4. Ancestor tools posses race, balance, and profound personal character
    5. Ancestor supertools were created to form a connection with the supernatural and build bridge between their efforts and the uncontrollable environment they wanted to influence
    6. When they reshaped tools into effigies it represented the change in relationship between themselves and nature
    7. They wanted to make a connection between themselves and the supernatural control.
    8. Effigies arose from or were formed from the tools they used
    9. Ancestors continued to refine their art to have greater control over it and their world
    10. Supertools were imbued with power and allowed our ancestors to posses some of that power themselves


    Objective:

    1. Paleolithic people were pre-agricultural
    2. Neolithic were early agricultural
    3. Celts were shaped like giant kernels of maize
    4. A single kernel of maize holds significance of its own
    5. The tools were used by our ancestors
    6. Effigies made of stone, wood, and/or clay
    7. Stone tool used for digging, cutting, puncturing, furrowing, separating, scraping
    8. They came to an understanding that there were forces beyond themselves that allowed them to reproduce, obtain food, and continue lineage.
    9. In "Biology of Sculpture" I began to write about the transition from stone tools to figurative sculpture
    10. A magnification of meaning and amplification of value is inherent in the celt.

    ReplyDelete
  10. Subjective-
    • Stone, wood, or clay effigies represent fertility, strength, or abundance
    • Tools are aesthetically beautiful and have grace and balance
    • Sculpture of bow or paper represents rain
    • The symbolism of the Celts
    • Interpretation of corn
    • Importance and usefulness of tools
    • Originality or purpose of pottery was dependent on culture
    • Effigies connect to the supernatural
    • Pottery was used to create art
    • Used for protection, food, etc.

    Objective-
    • Use of tools (digging, cutting, puncturing, furrowing, separating, scraping)
    • Hypothesizing ways to make tools more efficient depending on climate change
    • How the tools were made and what time period
    • What resources were used depending on availability (how people adapted)
    • Strength of human hands to create these sophisticated tools
    • Pottery is practical and resourceful
    • Tools during the Paleolithic period
    • Effigies and tools were made of stone, wood, or clay
    • The tools were found in similar places like caves, buried underground, water banks
    • The use of the tools first started in Mesoamerica

    Indira Plaisimond
    Josh Freeman
    Doug Lewis

    ReplyDelete
  11. Subjective:
    -Symbolic significance of the corn
    -Our ancestors’ tools are beautiful
    -The idea that tools contain profound intimate character because of our ancestors contact
    -How some of the tools were used
    -Figures connecting with the supernatural
    -Your hypothesis is subjective
    -Tools connote fertility, strength, or abundance
    -Effigies arose from used tools
    -Effigies represent a leap from one type of human control over the environment to another
    -Effigies could do much more than basic tool functions

    Objective:
    -Our ancestors used tools
    -The photographs you provide at the end of the piece
    -They reshaped their tools into effigies
    -The Paleolithic people were pre-agricultural
    -The Neolithic people were early agricultural
    -Celts were shaped like giant kernel of maize
    -Ancestors realized they didn’t have full control over nature
    -Environment shaped how our ancestors used tools
    -Stone tools were transitioned to figurative sculptures
    - People make art for a variety of reasons

    Miranda Chartoff
    Meghan Kelliher
    Yina Cordero
    Ethan Chang

    ReplyDelete
  12. Objective
    1.natural world
    2. materials
    3. the agriculture
    4. food available
    5. season/weather
    6. ancestors were refined art
    7. They started to reshape their tools into effigies.
    8. the fact that tools were used for rituals
    9. how they produced the tools
    10. Paleolithic was per-agricultural

    Subjective
    1. relationship to art
    2. If the tool is aesthetically beautiful
    3. the tool's use
    4. symbolic meaning.
    5. ritual use
    6. the kernel-shaped celt
    7. ancestor's cultural understanding
    8. supernatural beliefs
    9. ancestors seeking control over their world
    10. super tools allowed them to have power

    Members:
    Allison Brennan, Samantha Kirshon, Lauren Jiron, Sofia Yohannes, Gabrielle Kanellos

    ReplyDelete
  13. SUBJECTIVE:
    What the symbolic significance is
    Meaning of symbol
    What the supernatural force is
    The "super tool"
    The physical and aesthetic beauty of the tools
    What each tool represents
    Reasons for refinements of the tools
    The psychology of the art
    The way the tools gave people power
    How much power the tools gave to each person

    OBJECTIVE:
    The fact that everything has a symbolic significance
    A concrete representation
    What tool is used for
    Strength of the tool
    The fact that they think it is connected to supernatural force
    The capabilities of the tool
    Functions of the tools
    Physical refinements of the tools
    The changing of tool to effigy
    The way the tool physically strengthens the human hand

    Jesse Robinson
    Sam Wisenberg
    Jerry Tarn
    Davi de Azevedo

    ReplyDelete
  14. Subjective:
    - The symbolism of corn
    - Tools were a way of gaining greater control of the world around
    - The hypothesis is subjective
    - What does art represent?
    - Tools possess grace and balance
    - Why do people do art?
    - Tools are directly connected to rituals
    - "Tools of our ancestors are physically, aesthetically beautiful in and of themselves"
    - How did they come to make art?
    - The translation of tools are a large-scale coordination of artistic activities

    Objective:
    - Tools were used to dig, cut, puncture, etc.
    - Tools varied according to environments
    - Transition from stone tools to figurative sculpture
    - Effigies arose from used tools
    - Kernel-shaped celt is highly symbolic
    - Control over the world translated into the design and space and the built environment
    - Effigies could do more than extend the capability, agency, and strength of the human hand
    - Ancestors developed tools that were connected to the supernatural forces (anything that you can't do with your hands)
    - Tools were reshaped for different purposes
    - The Paleolithic people were in a time of pre-agriculture, and the Neolithic people were in a time of post-agriculture

    Jaime Stilwell
    Katy Cooke
    Victoria Pache
    Evan Rhodesian Man

    ReplyDelete
  15. Sasha Atigehchi
    Sam Raheb
    Kevyn Garcia
    Camila Levinson

    Subjective:
    1. Celts were shaped like giant kernels of maize
    2. Meanings of the stone and wood effigies
    3. Creating tools hoping to control outside forces
    4. Celt is abstractly symbolic
    5. Supertools were connected with the supernatural
    6. Change in relationship with nature
    7. Tools were beautiful
    8. Believed in forces beyond them that allowed them to reproduce and obtain food,
    9. Effigies were thought to have been formed from used tools
    10. Why do people make art?

    Objective:
    1. Tools show human evolution
    2. They have many uses
    3. Tools differ from time periods
    4. Sought greater control over their art
    5. Translates into design of space and built environment
    6. Tools were effected by the environment
    7. The photographs
    8. Paleolithic were pre-agricultural
    9. Neolithic were early agriculture
    10. Our ancestors used these tools

    ReplyDelete
  16. Subjective
    1. The tools started to develop spiritual meaning
    2. The beauty in the tools
    3. Significance of certain symbols
    4. Tools posses grace and balance
    5. Kernel shaped celts might represent a storehouse of maize
    6. People's relationship to art
    7. Why people do art
    8. Tools connected them to the supernatural world
    9. Effigies could give humans more ability
    10. Super tools give them power

    Objective
    1.Effigies were stone, wood, and clay
    2. They were in Mesoamerica and the Desert Southwest
    3. They were Paleolithic and Neolithic peoples
    4. They kept refining the tools
    5. The effigies were used symbolically
    6. Celts were highly symbolic
    7. The use of the tools
    8. The tools eventually led to writing
    9. They sculpted tools themselves
    10. How they refined art translated into the design of space and built the environment

    Abby Danowitz
    Elyse Dasilva
    Michelle Grbic

    ReplyDelete
  17. Subjective:
    -Stone or wood clay effigies emerging from used tools
    -These particular tools being described as graceful and having balance and profound personal character
    -Celts as a symbol or power and wealth
    -Single kernel of maize as a symbol of reproductive power, sustenance, continuation
    -Role of art in ancestors lives
    -Ancestors development of an understanding of their culture and the natural world
    -Symbolic significance of art
    -Tools changing ancestors' relationship between their community and nature
    -Supertools
    -Tools being described as aesthetically beautiful

    Objective:
    -Digging, cutting, throwing extended agency of hand
    -Capabilities of the tools
    -Evolution of tools leading to the development of writing
    -Celts as a symbol of power and wealth
    -Tools gave ancestors more control over environment
    -Single kernel of maize as a symbol of reproductive power, sustenance, and continuation
    -Ancestors' use of tools as trying to control their environment
    -Knowledge of how to use tools and agriculture progressed evolution of ancestors. No longer about the 'survival of the fittest' but the knowledge of how to survive and adapt (both definitions are interchangeable)
    -Development of ancestors' ideas connecting to a supernatural force
    -Tools had profound connection to our ancestors, not only for survival, but for admiration and beauty

    Elizabeth Mignon
    Alex Nulty
    Brandon Mojahed
    Olivia Imperatore

    ReplyDelete
  18. Subjective:

    1. The "Super" tool is based on opinion
    2. Corn celts being a symbol or power and wealth
    3. Our ancestors wanted to be connected to something "bigger"- some religious figure, some deity, they wanted to connect this deity to their everyday life/routine
    4. The idea that effigies could do more than regular capabilities, go past human restrictions unlike other "tools"
    5. The statement that the ancient tools in themselves are "beautiful"
    6. Our ancestors wanted to "control" the "uncontrollable"
    7. Did our ancestors really want to "refine" their art? Was that their major goal?
    8. Were super tools really endowed with power?
    9. Did our ancestors really believe super tools were endowed with power?
    10. AND- Did our ancestors really believe they were more powerful as human beings if they used the super tools instead of others?

    Objective:

    1. Tools changed over time
    2. Art gradually changed over time
    3. Art is a part of history
    4. Art is intermingled with new tools/inventions over time
    5. Our ancestors believed in some sort of supernatural, or "higher power"
    6. As our ancestors culturally developed, they sought more control over the world around them and the world for future generations
    7. They also sought control over their art
    8. Maize was prominent in Mexico
    9. Maize was a key food staple in the Aztec world
    10. Aztecs believed maize was important enough to be depicted in art

    Lauren Backus
    Alyssa McFarland
    Negin Taleb
    Pamela Jimenez

    ReplyDelete
  19. Edo Ohayon, Nick Schroth, Neil Browne, Carina Cruz, Rani Pan:
    Subjective:
    -aesthetically beautiful
    -religious aspects
    -tools were efficient and effective for the time
    -held supernatural power
    -effigy symbolism
    -effigies arose from tools
    -represents human control from one environment to another
    -tools look like a giant kernel of maize
    -ancestors developed cultural understanding
    -refined art meant seeking more control over their world

    Objective:
    -Paleolithic people are pre-agricultural
    -Neolithic agricultural
    -used by our ancestors
    -made of stone, wood, or clay
    -used tools for digging, cutting, hunting, borrowing
    -tool to effigy to writing
    -effigies have details similar to the human figure
    -tools and effigies are smooth
    -made by our ancestors around 12,000 years ago
    -made by natural materials

    ReplyDelete
  20. Subjective:
    1. Celts were a symbol of power
    2. they’re aesthetically pleasing
    3. connection to supernaturals and ancestors
    4. They were a method of understanding
    5. They changed their art in order to get better control over it
    6. creating effigies represented a change in their relationship with themselves
    7. the design of space embodied ritual
    8. A magnification of meaning, an amplification of value is inherent in the celt
    9. they possess grace, balance, and a profound personal character that comes from the intimate contact our ancestors had with them
    10. they wanted a connection to the supernatural control
    Objective:
    1. shape of the maize
    2. material of sculpture
    3. time period
    4. displayed their technological abilities and advancements
    5. They used tools and sculptures for some method of control
    6. They formed the sculptures with other tools
    7. represented a change in their relationship with nature
    8. product of evolving time period
    9. one kernel of maize helped reproductive power
    10. tools evolved in complexity

    Allie Silber, Hallie Armstrong, Victoria Thomsom

    ReplyDelete
  21. SUBJECTIVE:
    • Super tools built a bridge between efforts and the uncontrollable environment
    • Stone/clay effigy= symbol of strength
    • Celts= symbol of power and wealth
    • Tools of the ancestors were physically, aesthetically beautiful
    • A single kernel maize held its own personally significance; highly symbolic
    • Wanted and tried to maintain a connection between them and the supernatural world
    • The tools possess grace, balance
    • Tools each have their own profound character
    • Tools were used in rituals
    • Tools were considered highly beautiful and symbolic






    OBJECTIVE:
    • Reshaped their tools
    • Agricultural lifestyle: Neolithic and Paleolithic
    • Human hands have the strength to dig, scrap, and furrow
    • Effigies represent jumping from one kind of human control over the environment of another
    • Tools strengthened the human hand and expanded its abilities
    • Tools have been discovered in caves, the ground, and in water banks
    • Effigies were made from stones, and clay
    • Tried to make tools that fit with the environment and remade tools when the environment began to change
    • Celts were shaped like giant kernel of maize
    • Effigies were formed using tools




    Danielle McKinnon, Talley Perkins, Anna Dreyer

    ReplyDelete
  22. Subjective:
    • Stone or clay connotes fertility, strength, or abundance
    • Effigies arose from used tools
    • Grace, balance, profound personal character
    • Connect w/ the supernatural
    • Objects imbued with power
    • Large-scale
    • Embodied ritual
    • Digging, cutting, puncturing, furrowing, separating, scraping
    • Strength of human hand, enabled us to do more with our hands
    • The supernatural human forces
    Objective:
    • Giant kernels of maize, celts were a symbol of power and wealth
    • Single kernel of maize means reproductive power, sustenance, and continuation
    • Kernel-shaped celt might represent a whole storehouse of maize
    • Aesthetically beautiful & possesses grace & balance
    • Allowed their ability to reproduce to obtain food, and continue their lineage
    • Tool → effigy → writing
    • Supertools, which became objects of veneration-objects imbued with power
    • Build a bridge between their efforts and the uncontrollable environment
    • Agriculture
    • The materials used to make the tools

    Annie Holcombe, Chris Falco, Renee Wool

    ReplyDelete
  23. Objective:
    1. Stone tools are capable of “digging, cutting, puncturing, furrowing, separating, scraping”
    2. Celts were a symbol of power and wealth
    3. There was a transition from stone tools to figurative sculpture
    4. The activities used by tools extended the capability and the strength of the human hand
    5. Our ancestors reshaped their tools into effigies
    6. Their art translated into their design of space and the built environment
    7. Paleothic people are pre-agricultural
    8. Neolithic people are early agricultural
    9. His ideas about “why do people make art” and “a biology of sculpture keep changing
    10. These thoughts are influenced in part by some readings I did this summer for the NEH seminar on Mesoamerica and the Desert Southwest.

    Subjective:
    1. The meaning “still abstract and highly symbolic”
    2. Art has deep applications, at least toward understanding the nature of creativity and innovation
    3. Questioning why people make art
    4. Wood or clay may connote fertility, strength, or abundance
    5. Effigies perhaps formed from used tools and represent a leap from one kind of human control over the environment to another
    6. “The tools of our ancestors are physically, aesthetically beautiful in and of themselves. They possess grace, balance, and a profound personal character that comes from the intimate contact our ancestors had with them.”
    7. His hypothesis about how our ancestors understood the natural world and how they developed ideas
    8. Super tools allowed our ancestors to somehow possess some of that power themselves.
    9. They came to some understanding of forces beyond them that controlled or allowed their ability to reproduce, to obtain food, and to continue their lineage.
    10. Effigies represent a leap from one kind of human control over the environment to another

    Alexa Benudiz, Hayley Krugman, Adina Bolimovsky

    ReplyDelete
  24. Subjective:
    - Celts are symbol of power and wealth
    - inherent in the celt is the amplificiation of value
    - tools of ancestors are aesthetically beautiful
    - humans develpoment of supernatural ideas
    - goal of sculpting super tools
    - questioning has deep application
    - fertility, strength, and abundance are conveyed through the making of an effigy
    - reasoning for why people make art
    - effigies could do much more
    - refine art to greater control of their world

    Objective:
    - celts shaped like giant kernels of maize
    - digging, cutting, puncturing, etc. woulf extend the strength and agency of the human hand
    - translation of refined art to design and space of environment
    - environment embodied ritual
    - understandings continuing to evolve
    - effigies were evolved from tools
    - celts are abstract and symbolic
    - pre-agrictulture consisted of paleolithic and neolithic people
    - celts were reproductive powers and embodied sustenance

    Judy Le, Joe Renzi, Katie Headley, Claire Ertel, Tyler Toti, & Yesennia Pinkley

    ReplyDelete
  25. Anna Greene, Megan Uehlein, Jane Lu, Danielle Yoseloff, Natalie Jamnik

    Subjective:
    1) What they are supposed to represent
    2) Effigies arose from used tools
    3) The tools of our ancestors are aesthetically beautiful
    4) Tools became spiritual
    5) The tools ultimately led to writing
    6) The tools gave them power over themselves
    7) Used art to connect themselves to their environment
    8) The tools correlate with development
    9) 'Celts' were a symbol of wealth and power
    10) The tools are abstract and highly symbolic

    Objective:
    1) the function of the tools
    2) the materials used depended on location
    3) the tools became more refined over time
    4) tools resemble the human beings/environment
    5) tools became more complex over time
    6) Paleolithic are pre-agricultural
    7) Neolithic are early agricultural
    8) The people found significance in their agriculture
    9) Celts were shaped like corn
    10) The tools were all relatively small

    ReplyDelete
  26. Subjective
    - Speculation about what stone, wood and clay could mean.
    - Interpreting shapes to look like cells of corn
    - Tools possess grace, balance and a profound personal characteristic
    - Effigies arose from used tools
    - Tools of our ancestors are physically, aesthetically beautiful
    - The relationship that our ancestors had with the tools that they created
    - Tools were reshaped into effigies by the early people
    - The understanding of forces that controlled/allowed their ability to live, reproduce, obtain food
    - Developed ideas that connected to a supernatural force→went beyond their physical ability
    - Build a bridge between efforts to survive and what the environment provided them with

    Objective
    - cells were a symbol of power and wealth
    - tools created by ancestors
    - Paleolithic is pre-agricultural
    - Neolithic is early agricultural
    - Digging, cutting, puncturing, furrowing, separating, scraping were the uses of tools
    - Supertools allowed our ancestors to possess power
    - Ancestors developed understandings of the natural world around them
    - Ancestors refined their art
    - The environment was used for a larger scale artistic activities
    - Photos attached to the article show how the tools changed

    Rachel Sears
    Jaime Bennis
    Grace Bowden

    ReplyDelete
  27. Leah Weigel and Grace Alessi:
    Subjective: tools are beautiful, effigies arose from tools, tools posses grace balance and intimate connections to the world, all of these activities strengthen hand balance, an understanding of the natural world leads to an understanding of the supernatural world, being interested in our ancestors, why tools were shaped like effigies, super tools reflect our ancestors desire to have the same power as their supernatural beings, tools physically in and of themselves the people, detailed pieces represent more craftmanshift
    Objective: celts were a symbol of power and wealth, celts were a symbol of sustenance and continuation, super tools connected to the supernatural, refine art leads to greater control over art and world, design of space, stone tools were used for cutting digging and puncturing, neolithic were the early agricultural people, paleolithic were pre-agricultural, photographs of artifacts, effigies represented fertility strength or abundance

    ReplyDelete
  28. Objective:

    -Celts signify power and wealth
    -Maize- symbol of reproductive power, sustenance, and continuation
    -Reshaping tools into effigies represents a profound change in relationship with nature
    -Digging, cutting, puncturing, furrowing, separating, scraping
    -Understanding of supernatural force went beyond ability to dig, scrape, and cut
    -Sculpted "supertools"
    -"Supertools" were objects of veneration
    -Art led to design of space and built environement
    -Corn celts-->shaped like giant kernels of maize
    -"Represent a leap from one kind of human control over the environment to another"

    Subjective:

    -Kernel-shaped celt might represent storehouse of maize
    -Effigies form used tools
    -Creating and developing led to developing ideas of supernatural force
    -Objects with power gave them power
    -Wanting connection to control reproduction, food, and continuing lineage
    -"Perhaps this is when they started to reshape their tools into effigies
    -"Perhaps one that connotes fertility, strength, or abundance?"
    -"It's interesting to me that my ideas about these questions keep evolving."
    -"The tools of our ancestors are physically, aesthetically beautiful in and of themselves."
    -"Effigies could do much more."

    Cassandra Floch and Nicole Doherty

    ReplyDelete
  29. Subjective:

    1. tools and effigies are aesthetically pleasing
    2. corn/celt symbol of power and wealth
    3. effigies are symbols of ancient life
    4. effigies arose from tools
    5. effigies made in response to supernatural understandings
    6. effigies refined to express control over world
    7. represent a leap from one kind of control to another
    8. effigies could do more for ancestors than tools
    9. effigies/tools made to create connection with supernatural control
    10. effigies translated into design of built space and environment

    Objective:

    1. effigies/tools made out of stone, wood, clay
    2. effigies represented something cultural/spiritual
    3. transition from tools to sculpture
    4. effigies are result of culture
    5. effigies/tools meant to control environment
    6. effigies/tools gave ancestors a sense of power
    7. ancestors understood other forces affected their world
    8. display of technological achievements
    9. effigies/tools are abstract, possibly symbolic
    10. change in relationship between ancestors and nature

    We considered subjectivity in this list to be anything the author came up with on their own, or presented as opinion/personal observation. We considered objectivity in this list to be anything that was universally true about ancient effigies/tools, and separate from author's opinions/personal observations.

    Eliza Zhitnik
    Matthew Pinheiro
    James Warren
    Brendan Sullivan

    ReplyDelete
  30. Supertools, which somehow became objects of veneration-objects imbued with power-

    Subjective:
    Shaped like kernels of maize
    Symbol of power and wealth
    Symbol of several storehouses or supply of the village
    Connotes fertility strength or abundance]
    Tools were physically and aesthetically beautiful
    Allowed ancestors to possess some power of themselves]
    Wanted to build bridge between their efforts and uncontrollable environment they wanted to control
    Effigies cam fro used tools
    Super tools represented changes in themselves
    The understood the forces that controlled them

    Objective
    Celts were highly symbolic
    Extension of the agency capability and strength of the hand
    Ancestors refined art
    Translated into their design of space
    Early ancestors were pre agricultural
    Early agricultural were Neolithic
    Kernels of maize held significance
    Transition from stone tool figurative sculpture
    Super tools connect with supernatural
    Super tools became objects of veneration imbued with power

    ReplyDelete
  31. Objective

    Tools used
    Paleolithic peoples
    Neolithic peoples
    Agriculture
    Supertools
    “celts”
    The environment

    Subjective

    Art and its relation to the Neanderthals
    Transition from stone tools → figurative sculpture
    Human ideas
    “The tools of our ancestors are physically, aesthetically beautiful in and of themselves”
    Timeline of change
    Cultural significance of “celts”
    Neanderthals’ relationship with the environment

    Carly Klein and Ashley Toppel

    ReplyDelete
  32. Art is a balance between functionality and beauty (beauty being specific to a culture in during a given period.)
    Objective: The objects are objective. Without a given purpose they are nothing more than objective tools. They served a purpose for physical and social survival.
    - Shaping: cutting, digging, scraping, e.t.c.
    - The need to survive
    Subjective: the significance given to them by the “artist” behind them and the society that shared them. The details in the objects is what makes them interesting, and can point to a place of where the human need to create art arises. Is it to please some higher power? To show their superiority to their peers?
    - The choice to shape
    - To add details
    - To select symbols the represents certain abstracts

    Alejandra Rodriguez

    ReplyDelete
  33. Objective:

    art brought about rituals
    tools had a physical shape
    tools had some kind of purpose
    maize held a deeper meaning
    example of art --> shaped into a giant kernel
    physically sculpted tools
    paleolithic was the pre-agricultural era
    neolithic was agricultural era
    natural materials were used to create tools
    ancestors kept improving tools as needed

    Subjective:

    how they felt about the art
    celts represented power or wealth
    how effigy formed tools
    stone and wood tools were considered powerful
    effigy's represented changes in the relationship with nature
    effigy is just a symbolic interpretation
    tools belief in gods
    perception of beauty of the tools
    interpretation of photos
    importance of super tools

    Gabrielle Ciemny, Maura McGrath, Jessie Mitrovich, Mike Kapp

    ReplyDelete
  34. Objective:
    1) Use of tools
    2) Paleolithic people were pre-agricultural
    3) Neolithic were early agricultural
    4) Becoming more agricultural influenced the use of pottery
    5) In time, they mad their tools more aesthetically pleasing
    6) Tools and pottery had use (held food, made food)
    7) The more complex the tools became the greater purpose they had because they wanted more control over their environment
    8) They used stone, wood, and clay as part of their daily use
    9) Through the use of these tools (scrapping, digging, cutting.. etc.), it strengthened the human hand
    10) Tools are symmetrical

    Subjective:
    1) Tools are aesthetically beautiful
    2) Effigies are "super tools"
    3) Effigies had spiritual meaning
    4) Pottery shaped like corn celts are symbolic of power and wealth
    5) As they developed their own culture, they sought to understand their own natural world by interest in the supernatural
    6) Effigies were symbolic of fertility and rain
    7) Effigies embodied ritual
    8) Single kernel of maize showed reproductive power and sustenance
    9) Celts are abstract
    10) Kernel-Shaped celt might represent a whole storehouse of maize or a village supply

    Lauren Pappalardo
    Natalie Pintado
    Garrett O'Neil
    Dakota Wyne
    Mariah Bayless Davis
    Alexis Ortiz
    Matt Almengor

    ReplyDelete
  35. Objective:
    Using tools
    Agriculture
    Supertools connect with supernatural
    Change of tools over time
    Human evolution through tools
    Tools used by ancestors
    Environment played a role in their creations
    Celts
    Paleolithic- pre- agricultural
    effigies as a result of culture

    Subjective:
    Idea of aesthetic beauty
    Rituals
    Spiritual meanings and traditions
    Powerful tools- gave people power
    tools possess"possess grace, balance, and a profound personal character that comes from the intimate contact our ancestors had with them."
    Change in their relationship with nature
    Effigies could do much more than simple tasks
    Questions that evolve
    "And they wanted some connection to that control."
    inherent in the celt is the amplification of value


    Alexandra Hilas




    ReplyDelete
  36. Objective:
    The environment
    Function of tools
    Neolithic, early agriculture
    Celts, the way they were shape (like kernels)
    Tools made for writing
    Building a bridge
    Time Period
    Evolving over time
    Things made by natural materials
    Art as a party of their time

    Subjective:
    Celts as a symbol of power
    Role of their lives in time period
    Supertools
    Why they made art
    The art in tools
    Religious elements
    Supernatural
    The development of human ideas
    Sculpting tools
    Tools made them more powerful

    ReplyDelete